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Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim 635 Q 5 C 752 EDITED BY WILLIAM W. A Introduction 7 Yale-Smithsonian seminar held in the spring of 1989 provided an additional opportunity to discuss Crossroads themes (Hoover et al. Like the exhibition itself, the symposium contributions presented here address issues pertaining to cultural adaptation, the history and relationships of traditional cultures, archeological relationships and origins, material cul- ture studies, art, physical and cultural anthropology, and history. It was almost a century after the 1 74 1 voyages of Bering and Chirikov that paleontologists and anthropolo- gists began to accept the reality that man came to the New World as a result of Beringian migrations. Salt Lake City, Utah: Society of American Archaeology. 1979 An Ethnographic Study of Cultural Parallels among the Aboriginal Populations of Northern Asia and Northern North America. In Cultures of the Bering Sea: Papers from an International Symposium. Individuals occupying these multiple- roomed households were probably ranked.

FITZHUGH AND VALERIE CHAUSSONNET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS WASHINGTON AND LONDON The essays in this volume were presented at a symposium held at the opening of the joint Soviet, American, and Canadian exhibition, "Crossroads of Continents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska," September 22-23, 1988, at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. The contri- butions have been organized thematically rather than culturally, geographical- ly, chronologically, or by nationality of author. Steelquist, Robert 1990 Exhibit/Book Review; Crossroads of Continents: Cultures of Siberia and Alaska. Turner, Christy III 1988 Ancient Peoples of the North Pacific Rim. In view of the similarities that Steller, Krashenin- nikov. 1953 A Preliminary Statement on the Pottery from Cape Denbigh, Alaska. i960 Some Prehistoric Connections between Siberia and America. Each household had a headman and descending orders of rank based on age, sex, and internal social relations, as can be inferred from early sources (Lisianski 1968 [i8i4}:i82).

Center for the Study of Russian America and Russian-American Relations, In- stitute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Funds for computer analyses were made available from the Arizona State Uni- versity Research Incentive program. REFERENCES Boas, Franz 1948 Race, Language and Culture. However, blood re- mains a profoundly ambivalent symbol incorporating references to both life and death.

The first of these themes, treated in Part I, is the reinvestigation of the long-standing questions concerning the links between Asian and American culture originally studied by the Jesup expedition and central to the exhibi- tion. As a re- sult, many archeologists apart from those familiar with Alaskan evidence al- most automatically reject claims of external contact except for a few popula- tion influxes across Bering Strait. The chiefly office was inherited, al- though the exact lines of succession are not clearly described in early sources.

This chapter pursues two aims: those of fact-finding and of understanding the image of mixed marriages in the eyes of Chinese and Russian observers.

We begin with the fact-finding: how widespread was “mixed” marriage between Russian and Chinese nationals in Manchuria, from the beginning of Russian presence there in the 1890s to its near end by the late 1950s?

A member of the "Crossroads of Continents" curatorial team, she contributed a chapter on clothing to the exhibition catalogue and translated the Russian chapters into English. This coat had a highly conven- tional design, falling to about knee length with a flared skirt.

Center for the Study of Russian America and Russian-American Relations, In- stitute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences. ARON CROWELL was the co-curator of the "Crossroads of Continents" exhi- bition. In the mid-1950s he became the director of a museum in Anadyr, in Northeast Siberia, where he pioneered extensive archeologicai surveys in both coastal and continental parts of the Chukchi Peninsula and Kolyma area. Subsis- tence pursuits took place near the shore; social, political, ceremonial, and everyday life took place in the central strip of structures, while the dead tend- ed to be buried behind the village.

Ethnology — Russia (Federation) — Siberia — Exhibitions. Gamble 1989; Krech 1989; Dyson 1989; Ray 1990; Steelquist 1990). Non-arctic specialists were usually concerned with only the transit span of the "first Americans." Apart from the claims of vision- aries like Jose de Acosta (1598), Thomas Jefferson (1787), and the dispassion- ate Thomas Haven (1856), who chronicled early theories of New World na- tive peoples, little attention has been given to the region where the continents virtually touch and geography has channeled the movement of people since man arrived in the New World 14,000 years ago. [1983} Concerning the Problems of Parallels in the Traditional Culture of the Aborigines of North Asia and North America. Hatt, Gudmund 1949 Asiatic Influences in American Folklore. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-Filologiske Meddelelser 3i(6):i-i22. Both polygyny and polyandry were practiced and the number of spouses depended on both wealth and rank (Lisianski 1968 [i8i4}:i98; Bolotov in Black 19; Davydov 196; Merck 198).

Planned as more than an ordinary exhibition catalogue, its 360 pages of illustrated text summarize the prehistory, history, anthropology, and art of the North Pacific region from Paleolithic times to the present, with emphasis on- the material culture and societies of the nineteenth century.^ A number of reviews of this multiauthored book (it has 37 chapters) have appeared (see, for example. Turner, Victor 1967 The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Strangely enough, in the past diffusionist and migration investigations gave little thought to the possibility of contacts around the rim of the North Pacific and Bering Sea. New York: International Research and Exchanges Board. Haven, Samuel 1856 Archaeology of the United States. Kinsmen lived in multiple-roomed houses, each containing ex- tended families or several nuclear families (Merck 190).

FITZHUGH AND VALERIE CHAUSSONNET PART 1» 2^ Research History and American— Asian Links 1. 20^ Traditional Choreographic Art of Northeastern Siberia MARIIA l A. 21 J Koniag Eskimo Poisoned-Dart Whaling ARON CROWELL 13. Serov, our friend, colleague, and the helping spirit of "Crossroads of Continents." The first principle we can learn is how to coexist with nature, to live together with nature and not destroy the environment. In the late 1950s, he became in- terested in prehistoric cultural relations in the North Pacific and Arctic, and since then has made several trips to Northeast and Northwest Siberia. She has lectured in the United States and Canada on Arctic clothing and on the peo- ples of Siberia. After a long hiatus, these meet- ings began again recently with the convening of special conferences, such as the U. -USSR Symposium on the Peopling of the New World held in Wash- ington, D. FITZHUGH THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE Cultures of the New World and the Old is one of the most enduring subjects in American anthropology (Boas 1925). In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, vol. Traditional chiefs held au- thority over a single village or a cluster of villages, named after a local geo- graphic area (Davydov 190).

00 99 98 97 96 95 94 54321 Contents xi Contributors 1 Introduction WILLIAM W. A Twentieth-Century History of Contacts across the Bering Strait MICHAEL KRAUSS This collection of essays is dedicated to the memory of Sergei la. He obtained his doctoral degree from the Insti- tute of Oriental Languages in Moscow, specializing in traditional Japanese culture, its transitions, and modernization. A member of the "Crossroads of Continents" curatorial team, she contributed a chapter on clothing to the exhibition catalogue and translated the Russian chapters into English. Throughout the twentieth century, studies of Asian-American contact and culture history have been the subject of a number of symposia, first at in- ternational meetings such as the Twenty-First Congress of Americanists (1925) and the Fifth Pacific Science Congress (1933). Yesner, David 1980 Maritime Hunter-Gatherers: Ecology and Prehistory. Research History and American- Asian Links Crossroads of Continents: § Review and Prospect WILLIAM W. Prehistoric Koniag Villages on Northwestern Kodiak Island, Alaska. Even though Shelikhov appointed (oions to im- plement his policies, the Koniag already had their own traditional chiefs, who were called Anayugak (Gideon in Black 19).

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