Invalidating environment marsha linehan

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They are highly unstable emotionally, and develop wide mood swings in response to stressful events.

Finally, BPD may be complicated by brief psychotic episodes.

As in most mental disorders, no single factor explains its development.

Rather, multiple risk factors, which can be biological, psychological, or social, play a role in its etiology.

Most often, borderline patients present to psychiatrists with repetitive suicidal attempts.

We often see these patients in the emergency room, coming in with an overdose or a slashed wrist following a disappointment or a quarrel.

Similar characteristics can also be found in the close relatives of patients with BPD.

Research suggests that the impulsivity that characterizes borderline personality might be associated with decreased serotonin activity in the brain.

The level of long term improvement in borderline patients varies a great deal.They become quickly involved with people, and quickly disappointed with them.They make great demands on other people, and easily become frightened of being abandoned by them. We are only beginning to understand the causes of BPD.Those who are vulnerable to BPD may have a particularly strong need for an environment providing consistent expectations and emotional security.Most likely, BPD develops when all these risk factors are present.

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